Posts Tagged ‘Maryland Institute’

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“Unwearied in Their Attentions”: Secessionist Women and the 1866 Southern Relief Fair

In Uncategorized on February 9, 2016 by rob schoeberlein Tagged: , , , , , , , , , ,

Cover from Final Report of The Southern Relief Fair, 1866

Report… Ladies’ Southern Relief Association, 1866 (Rarebooks Collection, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries)

The Civil War deeply divided Baltimoreans along philosophical and sectional lines. The Secessionist women of Baltimore, those whose sympathies lay with the South, were often singled out for their devotion to the Confederacy. They supported their husbands and brothers in gray throughout the war, often risking arrest, imprisonment, or banishment. During the post-war era, the 1866 Southern Relief Fair provided the large-scale opportunity for them to demonstrate both their patriotic and benevolent dedication to the people of the South.

Fundraising fairs in Baltimore had been organized and held for decades previously. Most Baltimore fairs, but not all, appear to have been orchestrated by women to benefit their own church congregations. One of the earliest recorded, held in 1827, was to aid the needy children of Greece in the aftermath of the overthrow of their Turkish occupiers. The largest such effort came in 1864, with the Maryland State Fair for U.S. Soldier Relief or, as it is more commonly known, the Baltimore Sanitary Fair.

The prospect of holding a fair to raise funds for impoverished Southerners first arose in Baltimore during the fall of 1865. The sixty-six year old Jane Gilmore Howard, wife of General Benjamin Chew Howard, was elected to serve as the President of the Relief Fair. All six of Mrs. Howard’s sons had worn the Confederate gray. Annie Thomas, 46, a Virginian by birth, and Elizabeth Key Howard, 62, the daughter of Francis Scott Key, served as vice presidents. These latter two women were distinguished from the other Fair executive committee members in that their spouses had been arrested in 1861 and detained by US military authorities for disloyalty.

By early March 1866, 316 women had banded together to shape and promote the relief fair. A handful of well-to-do German immigrant women were also included. It does not appear that any woman officer connected with Baltimore’s 1864 US Sanitary Fair served as a manager in this endeavor. Speaking of the Relief Fair committee, the Baltimore American newspaper stated “[w]e do not find the name of a single loyal lady, nor among its gentleman managers and… we find… that the great mass… have been, and still are, active and persistent in the sentiment of disloyalty.”

In contrast to the 1864 Sanitary Fair, the April 2, 1866 opening day of the Relief Fair did not bring a holiday-like atmosphere throughout the city. No parades; businesses and schools remained open. Held at the Maryland Institute hall (when it was located near today’s Inner Harbor), the Relief Fair hosted no high ranking Washington officials on the opening night or any night. Also noticeably absent was any official delegation from Baltimore City or the Maryland State government.

The city newspapers reported immense crowds present throughout the entire length of the fair’s run. As the Baltimore Gazette reported, “[s]tretched across the centre of the hall is the star-spangled banner [a US flag], and at the end of the hall, the same emblems are [draped].” This overt nod to national patriotism and to a restored Union, however, was tempered by what no city newspaper described explicitly. Upon many of the 57 display tables, either for sale or for raffle, could be found portraits of the military heroes of the Confederacy. Paintings, prints and photographs of Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, Joseph E. Johnston, to name a few, could be found throughout the hall. No likenesses of Jefferson Davis appear to have been present. Less than one year before, Baltimore’s Secessionists could have been arrested by the US Provost Marshall for displaying or even possessing such images.

The Southern Relief Fair could be termed a great success when compared to similar efforts. The 1864 Sanitary Fair managers raised a final amount of just over $86,000. The Relief Fair women, in comparison, grossed approximately $160,000 for their efforts, about 2.3 million dollars in 2011 currency. The Baltimore Gazette opined “[the ladies] have been constant in their attendance and unwearied in their attentions…[t]he Fair women of Baltimore have crowned themselves with laurels, well deserved in many ways. The Fair also revealed that the split in Baltimore society still remained chasm-like within the breasts of many. The Baltimore American, a moderate Unionist paper during the conflict, simply refused to report on the Relief Fair. It gave the following reason:

“If there had been any attempt made, or any desire evinced, to secure the participation of the Union people of the city or State in this Fair, it would have been promptly responded to by them and heartily seconded by the American. On the contrary, there has been a persistent effort to make [the fair] a grand disloyal demonstration.”

In conclusion, the Southern Relief Fair gave Baltimore’s Secessionist women their most spectacular means to express their devotion to the people of the South. Channeling their energies, the women successfully mobilized thousands of fellow Marylanders, as well as sympathetic out-of-state parties, behind the cause of assisting the destitute citizens of the former Confederacy.

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Baltimore Sanitary Fair Sesquicentennial

In Uncategorized on April 18, 2014 by rob schoeberlein Tagged: , , , ,

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Maryland Institute, site of the Sanitary Fair

Maryland Institute, site of the Sanitary Fair

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The 1864 Baltimore Sanitary Fair (April 18-April 30) provided the large-scale vehicle for Maryland’s Unionist women to bring together both of their benevolent and patriotic impulses. Other cities across the Union, such as Chicago and Boston, previously coordinated such events. Proceeds from these affairs swelled the coffers of the U.S. Christian and the U.S. Sanitary Commissions, the two major national relief organizations for the Union armed forces. The prospect of holding a fair to raise funds for these entities first arose in Baltimore during the fall of 1863 and a series of female-led meetings soon followed. The women chose the 18th of April as the official opening date and invited a special guest to inaugurate the event.

April 18th witnessed general public celebration, transforming the drab thoroughfares of the war-time city. Acting upon a resolution of the City Council, Mayor John Lee Chapman issued a proclamation asking businesses to close at noon on April 18. Most tradesmen, with the exception of a few ardent secessionists, complied. Likewise, city school pupils enjoyed a half-day. The frenetic pace of city-life came to a complete stand-still as a grand military parade featuring over three thousand soldiers commenced at two o’clock. Starting at Monument Square, the nearly mile long column wended its way through the heart of the business district as the Eighth New York Artillery band serenaded the estimated 30,000 people lining the streets. Over four hundred of the original members of the First Maryland Cavalry, which had included four companies of Baltimoreans, veterans of Stoneman’s Raid, Brandy Station, and Gettysburg, proudly rode in formation. The throngs of spectators “not only repeatedly cheered . . . but from the windows of many of the residences ladies crowded all the available space, waving their handkerchiefs and display[ing] the National banner.” A second parade featured three thousand African-American soldiers in new blue uniforms, their gold buttons reflecting the brilliant sunshine of the temperate day. Constituting a portion of Maryland’s volunteer “Colored” regiments, the new enlistees were “huzzahed on their way to the front by the white population.”

President Lincoln

          President Abraham Lincoln

Acting upon the invitation of the women organizers, President Abraham Lincoln agreed to preside over the fair opening ceremonies. Lincoln’s appearance in Baltimore held symbolic importance for city Unionists, and perhaps, to himself. For loyal citizens it offered both a chance to display their devotion to the man who embodied the Union and cast off doubts about Baltimore’s predominant political sympathy. For the President, coming to Baltimore presented an opportunity to make amends for a past indiscretion. In March 1861, en route to his inauguration, Lincoln secreted himself through Baltimore’s darkened streets in response to the rumor of an alleged assassination plot. Already held in low regard by his affiliation with the perceived anti-Southern Republican Party, many residents regarded the President-elect’s distrustful action as an affront to their city’s honor; even Unionists expressed bewilderment. Later, the President “was convinced that he had committed a great mistake.” By opening the Maryland Fair, Lincoln could both mitigate his wrong and express his confidence in the city’s national loyalty.

Despite the apparent solidarity of the state’s loyal population, the Maryland Fair could only be termed a modest financial success when compared with similar 1864 events. The final tally exceeded just over eighty-three thousand dollars. In contrast, both the New York and Philadelphia fairs each cleared over one million dollars. Yet, when compared to all similar soldier relief fairs, the Maryland total stands respectable. Chicago’s, of December 1863, “netted between $86,000 and $100,000”; Boston’s, held in the state whose militia first answered Lincoln’s Call to put down the Rebellion, garnered but $146,000. Both Illinois and Massachusetts possessed vastly larger and much less philosophically divided populations. While competition for donations from other cities most likely affected Maryland’s net amount, both economic realities and the state’s political division did factor largely.

Maryland Unionists, nonetheless, regarded their fair efforts to be fruitful. Governor Augustus Bradford at the May 2 closing ceremonies remarked, “success is not to be estimated merely by its financial results, but by the wholesome moral influences it exerted . . . it has brought together loyal women . . . and served to show that American patriotism is confined to no climate, nor indigenous to any particular soil.” The press singled out the organizer’s and participants for their devotion. The Baltimore American newspaper lauded “the noble women of Maryland who have labored so long and so well . . . [they] deserve all praise and honor.”

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President Lincoln’s April 1864 Visit to Baltimore

In Special Collections,Uncategorized on April 12, 2013 by rob schoeberlein Tagged: , , , , , , , , ,

Interior of the Maryland Institute, April 1864

Interior of the Maryland Institute, April 1864

Acting upon the invitation of the women organizers, President Abraham Lincoln agreed to preside over the opening ceremonies for the Maryland State Fair for U.S. Soldier Relief, also known as the Baltimore Sanitary Fair.* Lincoln’s appearance in Baltimore held symbolic importance for city Unionists, and perhaps, to himself. For loyal citizens it offered both a chance to display their devotion to the man who embodied the Union and cast off doubts about Baltimore’s predominant political sympathy. For the President, coming to Baltimore presented an opportunity to make amends for a past indiscretion. In March 1861, en route to his inauguration, Lincoln secreted himself through Baltimore’s darkened streets in response to the rumor of an alleged assassination plot. Already held in low regard by his affiliation with the perceived anti-Southern Republican Party, many residents regarded the President-elect’s distrustful action as an affront to their city’s honor; even Unionists expressed bewilderment. Later, the President “was convinced that he had committed a great mistake.” By opening the Maryland Fair, Lincoln could both mitigate his wrong and express his confidence in the city’s national loyalty.

The city’s population and the Fair officials received President Lincoln with great warmth during his April 18 visit. Upon his 6 PM Camden Station arrival, “the President was loudly cheered by the people at the depot.” The freshly repainted and refurbished great hall of the Maryland Institute hosted the event [located downtown near the inner harbor at this time].  With her arm taking his, Elizabeth Bradford, fair co-chair and wife of Maryland’s Governor, led the President to the speaker’s platform amid the “waving of handkerchiefs and continuous cheers.” While his main speech concerned the deliberate massacre of African American U.S. troops at Fort Pillow, the Chief Executive’s initial remarks at the opening ceremony revealed the significance of his presence. Surveying the faces of the three thousand Baltimoreans before him, and perhaps, reflecting upon the city’s past hostility toward himself and Union soldiers, Lincoln remarked that “the world moves. . . . Blessings upon those men who have wrought this great change, and the fair women who have sustained them.”  The outpouring of the Unionists’ enthusiasm towards him, Maryland’s recent movement toward emancipation, and the remarkable setting of the relief fair provided ample evidence for the President’s perception. At the ceremony’s conclusion, “large numbers of ladies and gentlemen made a rush for the privilege of shaking hands with the President.”

The fair site appeared at its peak of splendor the night of Lincoln’s visit. With red, white and blue being a favored color scheme, U.S. flags, carved eagles, framed portraits of Union heroes, and evergreen boughs characterized the general decor. A thousand flickering gas lamps made the great hall’s rectangular space “one grand flood of light.” In the center, just behind the speaker’s platform, rose the Floral Temple. Inside, a gently cascading fountain held numerous varieties of fragrant water flowers within its basin. The White House gardens, through the auspices of Mrs. Lincoln, furnished a continual supply of fresh flowers. At either end of the building space stood a large ornamental arch “gaily decorated with national flags, and surmounted by jets of gaslight.” The German Ladies Relief Association featured a tableau from the Grimm Brothers’ fairy tale “Old Woman in the Shoe.” The Fish Pond, with mirrors for “water” and potted ferns lining its “bank,” captivated eager anglers of all ages with the chance to haul in “a big one.” With a rustic fishing pole one hooked up a small prize package containing, perhaps, a knitting needle, a ring, or a small doll.

Lincoln toured the main hall for two hours with an entourage of fair officials and Washington dignitaries. At the “German Ladies” stand, the member costumed as “‘the Old Woman who lives in a Shoe’ presented President Lincoln with a beautiful bouquet, and was kissed by him in payment.” Though most tables also offered gifts of flowers, the Baltimore County contingent proffered an expensive vase. The Central Relief Association of Baltimore bestowed a prize afghan, valued at one hundred dollars, as a gift for the First Lady. While viewing the Fish Pond, “the President seemed half inclined to bait a line and try his skill.” Leaving the site around 11 PM, the evening culminated at the Mt. Vernon Place brownstone mansion [702 Cathedral Street] of William J. Albert, the fair’s co-chair and Unconditional Union Party leader, where the President was regaled by “a handsome supper at midnight.” He retired at the Albert residence that night.

The Chief Executive boarded a train to Washington the next morning. This time he departed from Baltimore’s Camden Station in full daylight. Schuyler Colfax, Speaker of the House, who had accompanied the Chief Executive to the Fair, believed that Lincoln “was delighted with his visit.”

*An overview of the entire Fair (April 19-30, 1864)  is featured in this on line exhibition: http://msa.maryland.gov/msa/speccol/sc5400/sc5494/html/title_page.html

Digital image from the Maryland State Archives, MSA SC 5477, Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, May 14, 1864.